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Knowledge

K1 - K7 Language (see directly below) K8 - K15 Culture

Language

K 1 - Language as semiological system

K 1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows some of the principles of how languages work
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K 1.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that language(s) are composed of signs which form a (semiological) system
 
K 1.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that the relationship between words and their referent (the reality which they designate), or between the signifier (the word, the structure, the intonation, etc.) and the meaning is a priori an arbitrary one
K 1.2.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that even cases of onomatopeia, where a link does exist between word and referent, retain a degree of arbitrariness and vary from one language to another
K 1.2.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that two words which may have the same form or look alike in different languages do not automatically mean the same thing
K 1.2.3 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that grammatical categories are not “the” replica of reality but one way of organising this in language
K 1.2.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that grammatical gender and sexual gender are not the same thing
 
K 1.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that the arbitrary link between the word and the referent or between the signifier and the meaning is established, most often implicitly, as a convention within the linguistic community
K 1.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that within the same linguistic community, individuals give approximately the same meaning to the same signifiers
 
K 1.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that languages work in accordance with rules or norms
K 1.4.1 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resource Knows that these rules or norms may vary in the strictness or flexibility of their application and that they may sometimes be intentionally broken because the speaker wishes to transmit an implicit content
K 1.4.2 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resource Knows that these rules or norms may evolve in time and across physical distances
 
K 1.5 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that there are always variations within what one may consider to be the same language
 
K 1.6 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that a language functions differently in its spoken and written forms
 
K 1.7 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resource Possesses knowledge of a linguistic nature about a particular language (e.g. the mother tongue, the language of schooling, foreign languages, etc.)
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K 2 - Language and Society

K 2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows the role of society in the way languages work or the role of language in the way society works
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K 2.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Has knowledge about synchronic variations in languages (e.g. regional, social, generational, professional or specific-public related (international English, “foreigner talk”, motherese, etc.) and other variations)
K 2.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that each one of these variations can be legitimate in certain contexts and under certain conditions
K 2.1.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that one must keep in mind the sociocultural characteristics of speakers using these variations in order to interpret them
K 2.1.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some categories of languages with regard to their status (e.g. official language, regional language, slang, etc.)
 
K 2.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that each individual belongs to at least one linguistic community and that many persons belong to more than one linguistic community
 
K 2.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that identity is constructed or defined in interaction with “the other” during the process of communication
 
K 2.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that the language one uses contributes, along with other phenomena, to one’s identity
 
K 2.5 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some of the characteristics of one’s own linguistic situation or environment
K 2.5.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceHas knowledge about the sociolinguistic diversity of own environment
K 2.5.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows about the role played by different languages in one’s environment (e.g. common language of the country and the school, language of the family, etc.)
K 2.5.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that one’s own linguistic identity may be complex (due to personal, familial, national history, etc.)
K 2.5.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows the determining components of one’s own linguistic identity
 
K-2.6 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Has knowledge about historical facts (linked to relations between nations or people, resettlements of people) which have influenced or do influence the appearance or development of certain languages
 
K-2.7 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that in mastering knowledge about languages, one also acquires historical or geographical knowledge
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K 3 - Verbal and non-verbal communication

K 3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows some of the principles of how communication functions
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K 3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that apart from linguistic communication, there are other forms of communication (or, that linguistic communication is but one of the possible forms communication can take)
K 3.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows some examples of animal communication
K 3.1.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows some examples of human non-linguistic communication (e.g. gestures, facial expression etc.)
 
K 3.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourcePossesses knowledge about one’s own communicative repertoire (e.g. languages and varieties, discursive genres, forms of communication, etc.)
 
K 3.3 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that one must adapt one’s own communicative repertoire to the social and cultural context within which communication is taking place
 
K 3.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that there exists language means to facilitate communication (e.g. simplification, reformulation, etc.)
K 3.4.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that one can try to resort to linguistic similarities (e.g. genealogical links, loans, universals) to facilitate communication
 
K 3.5 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that one’s communicative competence originates from (usually implicit) knowledge of a linguistic, cultural and social nature
K 3.5.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that in order to communicate, one has at one’s disposal implicit and explicit knowledge and knows that others have knowledge of the same kind
K 3.5.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceIs aware of some of the aspects of the implicit knowledge upon which one’s own ability to communicate depends
 
K 3.6 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that in view of his / her plurilingual and pluricultural competence, a person who speaks a foreign language possesses a particular status in communication (a special status in communication)
K 3.6.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that a person who possesses partial knowledge of a language may have difficulty in communication and that he /she may need to or should be helped to ensure better communication
K 3.6.2 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resource Knows that a person possessing knowledge about at least one other language or culture may play the role of mediation towards that other language or culture
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K 4 - Evolution of Languages

K 4 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that languages are continuously evolving
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K 4.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that languages are linked between themselves by so-called “kinship” relationships; knows that languages belong to families
K 4.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows about some families of languages and of some languages which make up these families
 
K 4.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows about the phenomenon of “loaning” from one language to another
K 4.2.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows about the conditions which bring about linguistic “loans” (e.g. situations of contact, terminological needs linked to new products or technologies, swings of style, etc.)
K 4.2.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows what differentiates a linguistic “loan” from linguistic “kinship”
K 4.2.3 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that certain “loans” have spread across a number of languages (taxi, computer, hotel, etc.)
 
K 4.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Possesses knowledge about the history of languages (e.g. the origin of some languages, some lexical and phonological evolutions, etc.)
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K 5 - Multiplicity, diversity, multilingualism & plurilingualism

K 5 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Has some knowledge about language diversity, multilingualism or plurilingualism
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K 5.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that there are very many languages in the world
 
K 5.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that there are many different kinds of sounds used in languages (e.g. phonemes, rhythmic patterns, etc.)
 
K 5.3 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that there are many different kinds of script
 
K 5.4 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that multilingual or plurilingual situations may vary according to countries or regions (e.g. in number or status of languages, attitudes towards languages, etc.)
 
K 5.5 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that multilingual or plurilingual situations are likely or liable to evolve
 
K 5.6 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that sociolinguistic situations can be complex
K 5.6.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that one must not confuse country with language
K 5.6.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that there are often several languages used in one country or that one same language is used in several countries
K 5.6.1.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that often the borders between languages and countries do not coincide precisely
 
K 5.7 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Is aware of the existence of situations of multilingualism or plurilingualism in one’s own environment and in other places, near or far
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K 6 - Similarities and differences between languages

K 6 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that there are similarities and differences between languages and linguistic variations 
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K-6.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that each language has its own system
K 6.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that the system which makes up one’s own language is only one possibility among others
 
K 6.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that each language has its own, partly specific, way of perceiving or organising reality
K 6.2.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that the particular way in which each language expresses or “organises” the world is influenced by culture
K 6.2.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows therefore that in translating from one language to another there is rarely a word for word solution, a simple exchange of labels, but that one should see the process within the context of a different perception or organisation of reality
 
K 6.3 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that categories used to describe the workings of one language (e.g. the mother tongue, the language of education) may not necessarily exist in other languages (e.g. number, gender, articles, etc.)
 
K 6.4 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that even when these categories can be found in another language, they are not necessarily organised in the same way
K 6.4.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that the number of elements which make up a category may vary from one language to another (e.g. masculine and feminine or masculine, feminine, neuter, etc.)
K 6.4.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that the gender of the same word may vary from one language to another
 
K 6.5 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that each language has its own phonetic and phonological system
K 6.5.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that languages, regarding their sounds or sound system, may be different to varying degrees from one another or from one’s own language(s)
K 6.5.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that other languages may possess sounds which one may not even perceive, but which permit the users of those languages to distinguish words from one another
K 6.5.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that different languages may resemble each other or may vary in their prosody (e.g. rhythm, accentuation, intonation, etc.)
 
K 6.6 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that there is no word for word equivalence from one language to another
K 6.6.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that languages may use a different number of words to express the same thing
K 6.6.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that what one language may express with one word may be expressed by two or more words in another language
K 6.6.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that certain aspects of reality may be expressed in words in one language, but not in others
 
K 6.7 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that words may be constructed differently in different languages
K 6.7.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that languages may use different ways to indicate categories or relations (e.g. agreement, plural, possession, etc.)
K 6.7.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that the order in which elements making up a single word are placed may differ from one language to another
K 6.7.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that what one language expresses through the use of a compound word may correspond to the use of a group of words in another language
 
K 6.8 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that the organisation of an utterance may vary from one language to another
K 6.8.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that the order of words may differ from one language to another
K 6.8.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that the relationships between the elements of an utterance (e.g. groups of words, words, etc.) may be expressed differently from one language to another (e.g. through the word order, through endings, through prepositions or postpositions, etc.)
 
K 6.9 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that systems of script may function in different ways
K 6.9.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Is aware of the existence of different forms of script (e.g. phonograms, ideograms, pictograms)
K 6.9.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that the number of units used in writing may be very different from one language to another
K 6.9.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that similar sounds may be expressed in completely different ways in different languages
K 6.9.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that the correspondence established between graphemes and phonemes in alphabetic systems is specific to each language
 
K 6.10 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that there are similarities and differences between verbal or non-verbal communication systems
K 6.10.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that there are differences in the verbal or non-verbal ways in which feelings are expressed in different languages
K 6.10.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceIs familiar with some differences in the way feelings are expressed in some languages
K 6.10.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that some speech acts (e.g. the rituals of greeting, formulae of politeness, etc.) which may seem to be the same, may not necessarily function in the same way from one language to another
K 6.10.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that the rules of conversation (relating to the way one addresses others) may vary from one language to another (e.g. Who may take the initiative? Who may speak to whom? Who is addressed in a formal manner or in familiar terms as in vous/ tu in French?)
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K 7 - Language and acquisition / learning

K 7 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows how one acquires or learns a language
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K 7.1 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows some of the basic principles which underly the process of learning to speak a language
K 7.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that learning a language is a long and arduous process
K 7.1.2 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that it is normal to commit errors when one has not yet mastered a language
K 7.1.3 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that certain behaviours can help the learner, but that incessant correction or ridicule can in the same way “block” the process
K 7.1.4 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resource Knows that one never completely knows a language, that there are always things one does not know or that there is always room for improvement
 
K 7.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that one can build on the (structural, discursive or pragmatic) similarities between languages in order to learn languages
 
K 7.3 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that one can learn better if one has a positive attitude towards linguistic differences
 
K 7.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that the perception one has of a language influences the learning of that language
 
K 7.5 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that there are different strategies for learning languages and that the different strategies are not equally relevant in view of the learning objectives of the learner
K 7.5.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Is familiar with various learning strategies and how they can be applied (e.g. listening and repeating, copying several times, translation, trying to produce utterances by oneself)
 
K 7.6 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that it is useful to be well aware of learning strategies one uses in order to be able to adapt them to one’s specific objectives
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Culture

K 8 - Cultures: general characteristics

K 8 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourcePossesses knowledge about what cultures are and how they work
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K 8.1 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resource Knows that a culture is a grouping of practices, representations or values of all kinds shared (at least partially) by its members
 
K 8.2 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that a number of cultures, more or less different, exist
 
K 8.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that cultural systems are complex or manifest themselves in different domains (e.g. social interaction, the relationship with the environment, knowledge of reality, language, table manners, etc.)
 
K 8.4 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that the members of each culture define (partially) specific rules, norms or values about social practices or behaviours
K 8.4.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some rules, norms or values relative to social practices in certain domains in other cultures (e.g. greetings, everyday needs, sexuality, death, etc.)
K 8.4.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that some of these norms may constitute taboos
K 8.4.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that these rules, norms or values may be more or less rigid or flexible
K 8.4.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that these rules, norms or values may evolve in time and space
 
K 8.5 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that certain social practices in each culture may be arbitrary (e.g. rites, language3, table manners, etc)
 
K 8.6 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that each culture determines or organises at least partly the perception of the world or way of thinking of its members
K 8.6.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that facts, behaviours or speech may be perceived or understood differently by members of different cultures
K-8.6.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Is familiar with some schemes of interpretation specific to certain cultures as far as knowledge of the world is concerned (e.g. numbering, methods of measurement, ways of telling time, etc.)
 
K 8.7 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that cultures influence behaviours, social practices or personal evaluations (of oneself or of others)
K 8.7.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Is familiar with some social practices or customs from different cultures
K 8.7.1 Is familiar with some social practices or customs from neighbouring culturesPluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource
K 8.7.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Is familiar with some specificities of one’s own culture in relation to certain social practices or customs from other cultures
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K 9 - Cultural and social diversity

K 9 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that cultural diversity and social diversity are closely linked
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K 9.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that a culture is always complex and is itself made up of (more or less) different conflicting or convergent subcultures
 
K 9.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that within a same culture there exist cultural subgroups corresponding to social, regional or generational sub-populations
K 9.2.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows some examples of the variation of cultural practices according to social, regional or generational groupings
K 9.2.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows (in one’s own culture or in other cultures) some norms related to social practices and which are specific to certain social, regional or generational groupings
 
K 9.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that every person forms part of at least one cultural community and that many persons form part of more than one cultural community
 
K 9.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some characteristics of one’s own situation or cultural environment
K 9.4.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows (at least to some extent) which culture(s) one participates in
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K 10 - Cultures and intercultural relations

K 10 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows the role of culture in intercultural relations and communication
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K 10.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that uses, norms or values specific to each culture make behaviour or personal decisions complex within a context of cultural diversity
 
K 10.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that culture and identity influence communicative interactions
K 10.2.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that behaviours or words and the ways in which they are interpreted or evaluated are linked to cultural references
K 10.2.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceIs aware of how cultures structure roles in social interactions
 
K 10.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that cultural differences may underlie verbal or non-verbal communication or interaction
K 10.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that difficulties in communication caused by cultural differences may result in cultural shock or cultural fatigue
 
K 10.4 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that intercultural relations and communication are influenced by knowledge or representations one has of other cultures and those that others have of one’s own culture
K 10.4.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that knowledge one has of cultures often includes stereotypes (i.e. a simplified and sometimes useful way of grasping one aspect of reality, liable to lead to oversimplification and generalisation)
K 10.4.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows some stereotypes of cultural origin which may affect intercultural relations and communication
K 10.4.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceIs aware of the existence of cultural prejudice
K 10.4.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some examples of prejudice or misunderstandings of cultural origin (especially in the case of the cultures of those communities whose language one is learning)
 
K 10.5 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that the interpretation that others give to one’s behaviour may be different from that which that same person himself / herself gives to that same behaviour
K 10.5.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that one’s own cultural practices may be interpreted by others through the application of stereotypes
K 10.5.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows some stereotypes other cultures have about one’s own culture
 
K 10.6 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that the perception of one’s own culture and of the culture of others depends also on individual factors (e.g. previous experiences, personality traits, etc.)
 
K 10.7 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows (or is aware of) one’s own reactions to (e.g. linguistic, language, cultural) difference
 
K 10.8 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Has cultural references which structure one’s knowledge and perception of the world or other cultures as well as one’s intercultural social and communicative practices
K 10.8.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Has knowledge about cultures which are the object of formal learning, which belong to other learners in the class or which one finds in the immediate environment
K 10.8.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows certain elements which are characteristic of one’s own culture in comparison to other cultures which are the object of formal learning, which belong to other learners in the class or which one finds in the immediate environment
 
K 10.9 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows strategies which one can use to resolve intercultural conflicts
K 10.9.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that the causes of misunderstanding must be jointly sought or clarified
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K 11 - The evolution of cultures

K 11 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that cultures are continuously evolving
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K 11.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that cultural practices and values are created by and evolve under the influence of different factors (e.g. history, environment, actions of members of the community, etc.)
K 11.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that the members of a cultural community play or may play an important part in the evolution of their culture
K 11.1.2 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resource Knows that the environment often offers the opportunity for one to understand or explain certain cultural practices or values
K 11.1.2.1 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows the role of institutions and politics in the evolution of cultures
K 11.1.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that history or geography often offer one the opportunity to understand or explain certain cultural practices or values
K 11.1.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows certain historical facts (linked to relations between nations or people, to migrations, etc.) or geographical facts which have influenced or influence the creation or evolution of certain cultures
 
K 11.2 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that certain cultures are linked by particular historical relationships (common origin, old contacts, etc.)
K 11.2.1 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows some major cultural areas (linked to history, religion, language, etc.)
 
K 11.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that cultures continuously exchange elements between themselves
K 11.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that cultures can influence each other
K 11.3.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows some cultural elements which one’s own culture has borrowed from others, as well as the history of these elements
K 11.3.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows some elements which one’s own culture has given to other cultures
K 11.3.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that cultural differences tend to dwindle under the influence of globalization
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K 12 - The diversity of cultures

K 12 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows several phenomena relative to the diversity of cultures
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K 12.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that there is (still) a great multiplicity of cultures all over the world
K 12.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resource Knows that in connection with the diversity of cultures, there exists a great plurality of practices, customs or uses
K 12.1.2 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resource Knows that in connection with the diversity of cultures, there exists a great plurality of values or norms
 
K 12.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that it is often difficult to distinguish one culture from another
K 12.2.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that the borders between cultures are often blurred, indeterminate or shifting
K 12.2.2 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that it is difficult to distinguish or “count” cultures
 
K 12.3 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that one can find an extensive variety of situations of contacts between cultures
K 12.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that one must not confuse culture and country or culture and language
 
K 12.4 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that different cultures are continuously in contact in our immediate environment
 
K 12.5 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that the diversity of cultures does not imply superiority or inferiority of any one in relation to the others
K 12.5.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that relations between countries are often unequal or hierarchised
K 12.5.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that hierarchies established arbitrarily between cultures change with time
K 12.5.3 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that hierarchies established arbitrarily between cultures change according to one’s point of view or the point of reference
K 12.5.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that the graphical representation of the world is different according to the maps one is using
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K 13 - Resemblances and differences between cultures

K 13 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that resemblances and differences exist between (sub)cultures
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K 13.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows that each culture has (partially) its own way of functioning
K 13.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that the same act may have a different meaning, value or function according to different cultures
 
K 13.2 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that there may be resemblances and differences between cultures
K 13.2.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some resemblances or differences between one’s own culture and other cultures
K 13.2.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some resemblances or differences between social practices, customs, values or means of expression among different cultures
K 13.2.3 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some resemblances or differences between the cultures of different social, generational or regional groups
K 13.2.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some resemblances or differences between the cultures of different (social, generational or regional) groups in one’s immediate environment
K 13.2.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some differences in verbal or non-verbal expression of feelings (e.g. of emotions, etc.) in different cultures.
K 13.2.5 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows some differences in the verbal or non-verbal expression of social relations in different cultures
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K 14 Culture, language and identity

K 14 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that identity is constructed, amongst other things, in relation to one or more linguistic or cultural affiliations
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K 14.1 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that identity is constructed on different levels (e.g. social, national, supranational, etc.)
K 14.1.1 Pluralistic approaches are USEFUL for the development of this resourceKnows that the similarities and the differences between European cultures are a constitutive element of European identity
 
K 14.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that one always belongs to various (sub)cultures
 
K 14.3 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that one can have a multiple, plural or composite identity
K 14.3.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that such an identity may be difficult to assume or live, but that it may be lived in a perfectly harmonious way
 
K 14.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that bi/pluricultural or bi/plurilingual identities exist
 
K 14.5 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows of the existence of dangers of cultural weakening or alienation, as well as possibilities of cultural enrichment which may come about as a result of contact with other (dominant) languages or cultures
 
K 14.6 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that one’s own cultural identity may be complex (due to personal, family, national history, etc.)
K 14.6.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows some major elements of one’s own cultural identity
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K 15 - Culture and acquisition / learning

K 15 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resourceKnows how one acquires or learns a culture
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K 15.1 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that acculturation or belonging to a culture is the result of a long (largely implicit and subconscious) process of learning
 
K 15.2 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resourceKnows that one can apprehend a new culture as long as one wants to and one accepts the values linked to that culture
 
K 15.3 Pluralistic approaches are ESSENTIAL for the development of this resource Knows that one is never obliged to adopt behaviours or values of another culture
 
K 15.4 Pluralistic approaches are IMPORTANT for the development of this resource Knows that it is normal to commit “errors” of behaviour or interpretation of behaviours when one does not sufficiently know a culture and that being aware of this opens the way to learning
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  Pluralistic approaches are ...
 ... useful
 ... important
 ... essential
  ... for the development of this resource.