A framework of reference for pluralistic approaches

CARAP ning keelte ja kultuuride mitmekesisus tähelepanu

Ülevaade mitmekeelsuse ja -kultuurilisuse raamdokumendist (CARAP)

Mis see on? Tegemist on deskriptorite loendiga, mis kirjeldab  õppeks vajalikke teadmisi, hoiakuid ja oskusi (raamdokumendi B-osas) ning toetavad üldpädevuste arengut.
Selle abil on lihtsam mõista teadmiste, hoiakute ja oskuste paljusust, mida õpilane vajab selleks, et omandada keelte- ja kultuurideülest pädevust. Raamdokument toetab Euroopa Nõukogu poolt soovitatud haridusvaldkonna eesmärkide saavutamist keelte ja kultuuride mitmekesisuse valdkonnas, nende väärtustamisel.

Mida tähendab keelte ja kultuuride mitmekesisus? Termin keelte ja kultuuride mitmekesisus tähendab keelteüleseid õpetamis- ja õppimismeetodeid, mis hõlmavad samaaegselt mitmeid keeli ja kultuure. 

Kellel on kasulik tutvuda Mitmekeelsuse ja -kultuurilisuse raamdokumendiga? Kõikide ainete õpetajad, kes on huvitatud mitmekeelsest ja kultuuridevahelisest haridusest ja õpetusest, õpetajakoolitajad, haridusametnikud, õppekava arendusega tegelevad inimesed, õppekirjanduse loojad.

Mitmekeelse ja -kultuurilise õppe raamdokumendi võimalused:
• süsteemne kirjeldus pädevustest ja ressurssidest (deklaratiivsed teadmised, suhtumised ja hoiakud, protseduurilised teadmised), mida saab pluralistliku lähenemisega arendada;
• õppematerjalide andmebaas;
• õppematerjalid õpetaja- ja täiendkoolituseks.

Keelte ja kultuuride mitmekesisus

The term Pluralistic Approaches to Languages and Cultures refers to didactic approaches which involve the use of several (or at least more than one) varieties of languages or cultures simultaneously during the teaching process. This is to be contrasted with approaches which could be called “singular” in which the didactic approach takes account of only one language or a particular culture, considered in isolation. Singular approaches of this kind were particularly valued when structural and later “communicative” methods were developed and all translation and all resort to the first language was banished from the teaching process.

Language teaching methodology has seen the emergence of four pluralistic approaches over the past thirty years. 

Miks räägime pädevustest ja ressurssidest?

Competences have to be understood as follows:

  • competences are linked to situations, to complex tasks which have social relevance; they are in this way “situated” and have a social function;
  • they are units with a degree of complexity;
  • they call on different internal resources (generally a mix of knowledge, attitudes and skills) and external resources (dictionaries, mediators, etc.).

The descriptions given in FREPA competences and resources concern essentially two domains of competences:

  1. The competence to manage linguistic and cultural communication within a context of otherness
  2. The competence of constructing and developing a pluralistic repertoire of languages and cultures

FREPA identifies resources which are mobilised through these competences. These resources are presented in the form of descriptors.

Resources (knowledge, attitudes and skills):

The term resources is generally used for internal resources. 

Internal resources (as well as the use of external resources, but not competences) can be taught in situations/ tasks which are at least partly decontextualised.

Competences are viewed mainly in the domain of social usage / needs, while resources seem rather to belong to the domain of cognitive (and developmental) psychology. In this view it is indeed competences which come into play when one engages with a task.

However, it is probably the resources that one can – to a certain point – distinguish and list, defining them in terms of mastery and working on them in educational practice.

Mitmekeelsuse ja -kultuurlisuse raamdokumendi deskriptorid

The descriptors are accessible in different ways and in different languages:

  • They are presented in this Website by using an hypertext format which makes visual exploration easier.
    You can see them either in English (click on tab Descriptors at the top of the present page), or in French (tab Descripteurs),or in German (tab Deskriptoren)
  • They are part of the document FREPA – Competences and resources     
    See under tab Components (English) / Éléments (French) / Instrumente (German) at the top of the present page.
    (For network members: if this document has been translated into your language, replace the last sentence through : See the version in LLL on the right pane !)
  • They are also presented in the online documentation FREPA - Tables of descriptors across the curriculum, using hypertext too, but with an additional graphical representation which situates each element of the tables in the learner’s curriculum.
    See under tab Components (English) / Éléments (French) / Instrumente (German) at the top of the present page.

The database

The database FREPA – Online teaching materials, offers teaching activities which fall within the scope of pluralistic approaches to languages and cultures.

The purpose of this collection of materials, which include input in different languages, is to facilitate access to classroom activities which will help learners master the knowledge, skills and attitudes which the framework lists as resources and which can be developed by pluralistic approaches. All the materials proposed refer explicitly to descriptors of resources as they can be found in the FREPA framework. 

The database can be consulted either in English (tab Teaching materials at the top of the present page) or in French (tab Matériaux didactiques).

You will find below some examples of materials in LLL.

under development